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Mud, marvellous mud!

Benefits of mud play Scientists have now confirmed something that children have always instinctively known; playing in mud is a joyful experience. Recent research has shown that dirt contains microscopic bacteria called Mycobacterium Vaccae which stimulates the immune system and increases the levels of serotonin in our brains, an endorphin that soothes, calms, and helps us to relax. Scientists say regular exposure to the bacteria may help reduce a child’s vulnerability to depression. In short, playing in mud makes you happier! Playing in mud can make you healthier too. Science shows that today’s sanitized world is actually contributing to increased levels of childhood allergies and asthma. E

Speech - what to expect and when?

The sounds a child is expected to use: By 2 ½ – ‘m’ ‘n’ ‘p’ ‘t’ ‘d’ ‘w’ By 3 ½ - ‘k’ ‘g’ ‘f’ ‘s’ ‘l’ ‘y’ ‘h’ By 4 ½ - ‘ch’ ‘j’ ‘v’ ‘z’ ‘sh’ By 5 ½ - ‘r’ ‘th’ and blends e.g. ‘kr’ ‘gl’ ‘sp’ By 7 ½ - all sounds will be used Common difficulties: Up to the age of 3, children may still be doing the following: Final consonant deletion: missing off the last sound e.g. the say ‘boa’ instead of boat. Fronting: the sounds made at the back of the mouth (k/g) are changed to sounds at the front (t/d) e.g. they say ‘tar’ for car. Stopping: where ‘short’ sounds (e.g. p, t, d) are used instead of ‘long’ sounds (e.g. f, v, s, z, sh) e.g. they say ‘pish’ for fish. Voicing: where quiet sounds (e.g. p, t, k, s)

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